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Research Abstracts (IS-Wel & 5F-Wel)
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Wellness Research Abstracts
IS-Wel and 5F-Wel Development

Selected articles, books, and research projects describing the Indivisible Self Model of Wellness (IS-Wel) and/or using the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F-Wel) are included on this page. View the full list of wellness research citations or the research abstracts pages (IS-Wel & 5F-Wel, A-G, H-L, M-Q, P-S, T-Z) for other wellness research.

IS-Wel and 5F-Wel Citations

Researchers using the Indivisible Self Model of Wellness (IS-Wel) and the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F-Wel) should cite the following sources for the model and instrument:

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (Eds.). (2005a). Wellness in counseling: Theory, research, and practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.

Destined to become a classic in the field, Counseling for Wellness presents a research-based model for improving physical and mental health and well-being. Twenty-eight experts provide life-enhancing counseling applications for diverse client groups, which can be used in schools, mental health agencies, counselor education programs, and business and industry. Wellness measurement, formal and informal assessment techniques, and future directions for research are discussed in detail.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2008). Wellness counseling: The evidence base for practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 482-493.

Wellness conceptualized as the paradigm for counseling provides strength-based strategies for assessing clients, conceptualizing issues developmentally, and planning interventions to remediate dysfunction and optimize growth. Wellness counseling models have stimulated significant research that helps to form the evidence base for practice in the counseling field. The development of these models is explained, results of studies using the models are reviewed, and implications for research needed to further inform clinical practice and advocacy efforts are discussed.

Myers, J. E., and Sweeney, T. J. (2005b).  The indivisible self: An evidence-based model of wellness.Journal of Individual Psychology, 61(3), 269-279.

The Indivisible Self, an evidence-based model of wellness, emerged from factor
analytic studies based on an earlier wellness model, the Wheel of Wellness. Both
models use Individual Psychology as an organizing theory; however, the current
model exemplifies holism as the foundation of human wellness. In this article, the
Indivisible Self model is described, and implications for counseling and needed
research are provided.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J (2005c). The Five Factor Wellness Inventory. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc.

The Five Factor Wellness Inventory (FFWEL) is an evidence-based tool used to assess wellness characteristics as a basis for helping individuals make choices for healthier living. Developed through structural equation modeling analysis of a large database from the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL), the FFWEL measures the higher order Wellness factor, 5 second-order factors and 17 discrete scales as illustrated in the Indivisible Self: An Evidence-based Model of Wellness. These scales are measured using 74 scored items and a number of experimental items, including perceived safety, perceived wellness, and context scales. Demographic items are also included.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2005d). Manual for the Five Factor Wellness Inventory. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc.

Includes details on administration, scoring, and interpretation, etc., plus a review-only copy of the instrument.

Additional key articles

Hattie, J. A., Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). A factor structure of wellness: Theory, assessment, analysis, and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 354-364.

The Wheel of Wellness, a theoretical model of well-being, incorporates 16 dimensions of healthy functioning that can be assessed using the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL; J. E. Myers, T. J. Sweeney, & J. M. Witmer, 1998). A series of studies are reported concerning the development and validation of the WEL based on a large database. In the current study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the items and scales revealed 5 primary factors of well-being (Creative, Coping, Social, Essential, and Physical) and 1 superordinate factor identified as "Wellness."

Myers, J. E., Sweeney, T. J., & Witmer, M. (2000). Counseling for wellness: A holistic model for treatment planning. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 251-266.

A holistic model of wellness and prevention over the life span was presented by T. J. Sweeney and J. M. Witmer (1991) and J. M. Wimer and T. J. Sweeney (1992). Recent advances in research and theory related to wellness support modifications of the original model. The foundation for the model is examined, research related to each component is explored, and implications for use of the model as a basis for counseling interventions are presented.

Myers, J. E. (1992). Wellness, prevention, development: The cornerstone of the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71(2), 136-139.

The American Counseling Association’s (ACA), formerly the American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD), unique contribution to wellness philosophy lies in the profession’s concern for development over the life span. In this article, ACA’s commitment to and proactive stance toward wellness are described, the relationship between wellness, developmental approaches, and prevention is addressed, and the debate surrounding prevention as a non-third-party-reimbursable mental health service is discussed.

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