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Wellness Research
Using the IS-Wel and/or 5F-Wel 

Selected articles, books, and research projects describing the Indivisible Self Model of Wellness (IS-Wel) and/or using the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F-Wel) are included on this page. If you have a publication you would like to include here, please send the citation to tjsweeney36@gmail.com. You may also visit the Wellness Research Abstracts pages (IS-Wel & 5F-Wel, A-G, H-L, M-Q, P-S, T-Z) for abstracts of the articles listed below by primary author.

IS-Wel and 5F-Wel Citations

Researchers using the Indivisible Self Model of Wellness (IS-Wel) and the Five Factor Wellness Inventory (5F-Wel) should cite the following sources for the model and instrument. View the IS-Wel & 5F-Wel abstracts for more details.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (Eds.). (2005a). Wellness in counseling: Theory, research, and practice. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. (View Abstract)

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2008). Wellness counseling: The evidence base for practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 482-493. (View Abstract).

Myers, J. E., and Sweeney, T. J. (2005b).  The indivisible self: An evidence-based model of wellness. Journal of Individual Psychology, 61(3), 269-279. (View Abstract).

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J (2005c). The Five Factor Wellness Inventory. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden, Inc. (View Abstract).

Additional key articles on the IS-Wel and 5F-Wel

Hattie, J. A., Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). A factor structure of wellness: Theory, assessment, analysis, and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 354-364. (View Abstract).

Myers, J. E., Sweeney, T. J., & Witmer, M. (2000). Counseling for wellness: A holistic model for treatment planning. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78(3), 251-266. (View Abstract).

Myers, J. E. (1992). Wellness, prevention, development: The cornerstone of the profession. Journal of Counseling and Development, 71(2), 136-139. (View Abstract).

Wellness Research

There are a number of peer-reviewed articles related to wellness. Many of these use the IS-Wel model or the 5F-Wel instrument in their research. However, other wellness articles of interest are included as well. For copies of these articles, please contact the senior author or the publisher's website. View the abstract (A-G, H-L, M-Q, P-S, T-Z) for more details.

Barden, S. M., Conley, A. H., & Young, M. E. (2015). Integrating health and wellness in mental health counseling: Clinical, educational, and policy implications. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 37(2), 152-163. (View Abstract).

Carney, J. V. (2007). Humanistic wellness services for community mental health providers. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 46(2), 154-171. (View Abstract).

Cashwell, C. S., Bentley, D. P., & Bigbee, A. (2007). Spirituality and counselor wellness. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 46(1), 66-81. (View Abstract).

Chandler, C. K., Fernando, D. M., Barrio, M. C. A., & Portrie-Bethke, T. L. (2015). Eight domains of pet-owner wellness: Valuing the owner-pet relationship in the counseling process. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 37(3), 268-282. (View Abstract).

Chang, C. Y., & Myers, J. E. (2003). Cultural adaptation of the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle: An assessment challenge. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 35(4), 239-250. (View Abstract).

Choate, L. H., & Smith, S. L. (2003). Enhancing development in 1st-Year college student success courses: A holistic approach. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 42(2), 178. (View Abstract).

Connolly, K. M., & Myers, J. E. (2003). Wellness and mattering: The role of holistic factors in job satisfaction. Journal of Employment Counseling, 40(4), 152. (View Abstract).

Clarke, P. B., Adams, J. K., Wilkerson, J. R., & Shaw, E. G. (2016). Wellness-based counseling for caregivers of persons with dementia. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 38(3), 263-277.

Cummins, P. N., Massey, L., & Jones, A. (2007). Keeping ourselves well: Strategies for promoting and maintaining counselor wellness. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 46(1), 35.

Day-Vines, N. L., & Holcomb-McCoy, C. (June 06, 2007). Wellness among African American counselors. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 46(1), 82-97.

Degges-White, S., & Myers, J. E. (2006). Transitions, subjective age, wellness, and life satisfaction: a comparison between lesbians and heterosexual women in midlife. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 1(2), 21-43.

Degges-White, S., & Myers, J. E. (2006a). Transitions, wellness, and life satisfaction: Implications for counseling midlife women. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 28(2), 133.

Degges-White, S., & Myers, J. E. (2006b). Women at midlife: An exploration of chronological age, subjective age, wellness, and life satisfaction. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, 5(2), 67-80.

Degges-White, S., Myers, J. E., Adelman, J. U., & Pastoor, D. D. (2003). Examining counseling needs of headache patients: An exploratory study of wellness and perceived stress. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4), 271.

Dew, B. J., Myers, J. E., & Wightman, L. F. (2005). Wellness in adult gay males: Examining the impact of internalized homophobia, self-disclosure, and self-disclosure to parents. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 1(1), 23-40.

Duğan, T., & Yildirim, b. (2006). Üniversite Öğrencilerinin İyilik Halinin Arkadaşlık ve Sevgi Boyutlarının enmesi (Turkish). Eurasian Journal of Educational Research (EJER)(24), 77.

Fetter, H., & Koch, D. W. (2009). Promoting overall health and wellness among clients: The relevance and role of professional counselors. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, 8(1).

Foster, T. (2010). The Wellness Cube Model: An Adlerian-Based Academic Intervention Model for Promoting Wellness. CD.

Foster, T. (2010). Encouraging student wellness: An expanded role for counselor educators. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 2, 10-22.

Foster, T., Galjour, C., & Spengel, S. (2015). Investigating holistic wellness dimensions during older adulthood: A factor analytic study. Journal of Adult Development, 22(4), 239-247.

Foster, T. W., & Levitov, J. E. (2012). Wellness during midlife and older adulthood: A different perception. Adultspan Journal, 11(2), 66-76.

Foster, T. & Steen, L. & O’Ryan, L. & Nelson, J. (2016). Examining how the Adlerian life tasks predict anxiety in first-year counseling students. The Journal of Individual Psychology 72(2), 104-120.

Fullen, M. C. (2016). Counseling for wellness with older adults. Adultspan Journal, 15(2), 109-123.

Gibson, D. M., & Myers, J. E. (2006). Perceived stress, wellness, and mattering: A profile of first-year citadel cadets. Journal of College Student Development, 47(6), 647-660. doi: 10.1353/csd.2006.0065

Gill, C. S., Barrio Minton, C. A., & Myers, J. E. (2010). Spirituality and religiosity: Factors affecting wellness among low-income, rural women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 293.

Hagensen, K. P. (2015). Using a Dance/Movement Therapy-Based Wellness Curriculum: An Adolescent Case Study. American Journal of Dance Therapy: Publication of the American Dance Therapy Association, 37, 2, 150-175.

Hartwig, H. J., & Myers, J. E. (2003). A different approach: Applying a wellness paradigm to adolescent female delinquents and offenders. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(1), 57.

Hartwig Moorhead, H. J., Green, J., McQuistion, R. R., & Ozimek, B. (2008). Wellness interventions for school counselors: A case-study in treating Asperger's Disorder. Journal of School Counseling, 6(1).

Hattie, J. A., Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). A factor structure of wellness: Theory, assessment, analysis, and practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 82(3), 354-364.

Hendricks, B., Bradley, L., Brogan, W. C., & Brogan, C. (2009). Shelly: A case study focusing on ethics and counselor wellness. The Family Journal, 17(4), 355-359.

Hermon, D. A., & Davis, G. A. (2004). College student wellness: A comparison between traditional- and nontraditional-age students. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 32-39.

Hermon, D. A., & Hazler, R. J. (1999). Adherence to a wellness model and perceptions of psychological well-being. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77(3), 339.

Hodges, E. A., & Myers, J. E. (2010). Counseling adult women survivors of childhood sexual abuse: Benefits of a wellness approach. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 32(2), 139.

Hollingsworth, M. A. (2010). Relationship of friends, physical education, and state test scores: Implications for school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 8(35).

Jang, Y. J., Lee, J., Puig, A., & Lee, S. M. (2012). Factorial invariance and latent mean differences for the Five Factor Wellness Inventory with Korean and American counselors. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 45(2), 71-83.

LaFountaine, J., Neisen, M., & Parsons, R. (2006). Wellness factors in first year college students. American Journal of Health Studies, 21(3/4), 214.

Lambie, G. W., Smith, H. L., & Ieva, K. P. (2009). Graduate counseling students' levels of ego development, wellness, and psychological disturbance: An exploratory investigation. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, 8(2), 114-127.

Lau, P. S. Y., Wang, B., & Myers, J. E.  (2015). Measuring the wellness of secondary school teachers in Hong Kong: Adaptation of the Chinese 5F-Wel. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 1(23). DOI: 10.1177/0748175615578754

Lawson, G. (2007). Counselor wellness and impairment: A national survey. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 46(1), 20-34.

Lenz, A. S., Oliver, M., & Sangganjanavanich, V. F. (2014). Perceptions of meaningful moments among counselors in training participating in the Wellness Model of Supervision. The Clinical Supervisor, 33, 45-62. doi:10.1080/07325223.2014.905814

Lenz, A. S., & Sangganjanavanich, V. F., Balkin, R., Oliver, M., & Smith, R. L. (2012). Wellness Model of Supervision: A comparative analysis. Counselor Education and Supervision, 51, 207-221.

Lenz, A. S., & Smith, R. L. (2010). Integrating wellness concepts within a clinical supervision model. The Clinical Supervisor, 29, 228-245. doi:10.1080/07325223.2010.518511

Leppma, M., & Young, M. E. (2016). Loving-kindness meditation and empathy: A wellness group intervention for counseling students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(3) 297–305.

Lewis, T. F., & Myers, J. E. (2010). Wellness factors as predictors of alcohol use among undergraduates: Implications for prevention and intervention. Journal of College Counseling, 13(2), 111-125.

Lewis, T. F., & Myers, J. E. (2012). Wellness factors decrease the odds of drinking and driving among college students.  Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling, 33(2), 93-106.

Mackey, S. (2009). Towards an ontological theory of wellness: A discussion of conceptual foundations and implications for nursing. Nursing Philosophy, 10(2), 103-112.

Makinson, L. S., & Myers, J. E. (2003). Wellness: An alternative paradigm for violence prevention. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 42(2), 165.

Mareno, N., & James, K. S. (2010). Further validation of the Body-Mind-Spirit Wellness Behavior and Characteristic Inventory for College Students.Southern Online Journal of Nursing Research, 10(4), 74-85.

McDonald, K.E. (2011). Transcultural wellness: An exploratory study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. 39(4). DOI: 10.1002/j.2161-1912.2011.tb00638.x

Meany-Walen, K. K., Davis-Gage, D., & Lindo, N. A. (2016). The impact of wellness-focused supervision on mental health counseling practicum students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 94(4), 464-472.

Moorhead, H., Gill, C., Minton, C. A. B., & Myers, J. E. (2012). Forgive and forget? Forgiveness, personality, and wellness among counselors-in-trainingCounseling and Values, 57(1), 81-95.

Myers, J. E. (1991). Wellness as the paradigm for counseling and development. Counselor Education & Supervision, 30(3), 183.

Myers, J. E. (1992). Wellness, prevention, development: The cornerstone of the profession. Journal of Counseling & Development, 71(2), 136.

Myers, J. E. (2003). Coping with caregiving stress: A wellness-oriented, strengths-based approach for family counselors. The Family Journal, 11(2), 153-161. doi: 10.1177/1066480702250162

Myers, J. E., & Bechtel, A. (2004). Stress, wellness, and mattering among cadets at West Point: factors affecting a fit and healthy force. Military Medicine, 169(6), 475-482.

Myers, J. E., & Degges-White, S. (2007). Aging well in an upscale retirement community: The relationships among perceived stress, mattering, and wellness. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, 6(2), 96-110.

Myers, J. E., Luecht, R. M., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). The factor structure of wellness: Reexamining theoretical and empirical models underlying the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL) and the Five-Factor Wellness Inventory. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 36(4), 194.

Myers, J. E., Madathil, J., & Tingle, L. R. (2005). Marriage satisfaction and wellness in India and the United States: A preliminary comparison of arranged marriages and marriages of choice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 83(2), 183-190.

Myers, J. E., Mobley, A. K., & Booth, C. S. (2003). Wellness of counseling students: Practicing what we preach. Counselor Education & Supervision, 42(4), 264.

Myers, J. E., & Mobley, K. (2004). Wellness of undergraduates: Comparisons of traditional and nontraditional students. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 40-49.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2004). The indivisible self: An evidence-based model of wellness. Journal of Individual Psychology, 60(3), 234-244.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2005). The indivisible self: An evidence-based model of wellness (reprint). [Article]. Journal of Individual Psychology, 61(3), 269-279.

Myers, J. E., & Sweeney, T. J. (2008). Wellness counseling: The evidence base for practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 482-493.

Myers, J. E., Sweeney, T. J., & Witmer, J. M. (2000). The wheel of wellness counseling for wellness: A holistic model for treatment planning. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78(3), 251.

Myers, J. E., & Williard, K. (2003). Integrating spirituality into counselor preparation: A developmental, wellness approach. Counseling and Values, 47(2), 142-155.

Myers, J. E., Willise, J. T., & Villalba, J. A. (2011). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1), 28.

Myers, J. E., Willse, J. T., & Villalba, J. A. (2012). Promoting self-esteem in adolescents: The influence of wellness factors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(1) 28-36.

Mynatt, B.  S., Heidel, R. E., & Studer, J. R. (2014). Bullying: A wellness concern among Appalachian youth. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 53(2), 86-100.

Oguz-Duran, N., & Tezer, E. (2009). Wellness and self-esteem among Turkish university students. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 31(1), 32-44.

Okonski, V. O. (2003). Exercise as a Counseling Intervention. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(1), 45-56.

Perepiczka, M. (2010). Wellness-based group counseling with elementary students in disciplinary alternative education programs. Journal of School Counseling, 7(10), 1-27.

Powers, A. S., Myers, J. E., Tingle, L. R., & Powers, J. C. (2004). Wellness, perceived stress, mattering, and marital satisfaction among medical residents and their spouses: Implications for education and counseling. Family Journal, 12(1), 26.

Prosek, E. A., Holm, J. M., & Daly, C. M. (2013). Benefits of required counseling for counseling students. Counselor Education and Supervision, 52(4), 242-254.

Puig, A., Baggs, A., Mixon, K., Park, Y. M., Kim, B. Y., & Lee, S. M. (2012). Relationship between job burnout and personal wellness in mental health professionals. Journal of Employment Counseling, 49(3) 98-109. DOI: 10.1002/j.2161-1920.2012.00010.x

Rachele, J. N., Cuddihy, T.F., Washington, T.L., & McPhail, S.M. (2014). Reliability of a wellness inventory for use among adolescent females aged 12-14 years. BMC Women’s Health, 14(87), DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-14-87

Rayle, A. D. (2005). Adolescent gender differences in mattering and wellness. Journal of Adolescence, 28(6), 753-763. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.10.009

Rayle, A. D., & Myers, J. E. (2004). Counseling adolescents toward wellness: The roles of ethnic identity, acculturation, and mattering. Professional School Counseling, 8(1), 81.

Reese, R., & Myers, J. E. (2012). EcoWellness: The missing factor in wellness models. Journal of Counseling & Development, 90, 400-406.

Reese, R. F., Myers, J. E., Lewis, T. F., & Willse, J. T. (June 01, 2015). Construction and Initial Validation of the Reese EcoWellness Inventory. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 37(2) 124-142. DOI 10.1007/s10447-014-9232-1

Roach, L. F., & Young, M. E. (2007). Do counselor education programs wellness in their students? Counselor Education & Supervision, 47(1), 29.

Roscoe, L. J. (2009). Wellness: A review of theory and measurement for Counselors. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87(2), 216.

Shannonhouse, L., Myers, J., Barden, S., Clark, P., Weimann, R., Forti, A., Moore-Painter, T., Knutson, T., & Porter, M. (2014). Finding your new normal: Outcomes of a wellness-oriented psycho-educational support group for cancer survivors. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 39(1), 3-29.

Shillingford, M. A., Trice-Black, S., & Butler, S. K. (2013). Wellness of minority female counselor educators. Counselor Education and Supervision, 52(4), 255-269.

Shurts, W. M., & Myers, J. E. (2008). An examination of liking, love styles, and wellness among emerging adults: Implications for social wellness and development. Adultspan: Theory Research & Practice, 7(2), 51-68.

Sinclair, S. L., & Myers, J. E. (2004). The relationship between objectified body consciousness and wellness in a group of college women. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 150-161.

Smith, H. L., Robinson, E. H. M., III, & Young, M. E. (2007). The relationship among wellness, psychological distress, and social desirability of entering master's-level counselor trainees. Counselor Education and Supervision, 47(2), 96-109.

Smith, S. L., Myers, J. E., & Hensley, L. G. (2002). Putting more life into life career courses: The benefits of a holistic wellness model. Journal of College Counseling, 5(1), 90-95.

Smith-Adcock, S., Webster, S. M., Leonard, L. G., & Walker, J. L. (2008). Benefits of a holistic group counseling model to promote wellness for girls at risk for delinquency: An exploratory study. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 47(1), 111.

Spurgeon, S. L. (2009). Wellness and college type in African American male college students: An examination of differences. Journal of College Counseling, 12(1), 33-43.

Spurgeon, S. L., & Myers, J. E. (2010). African American males: Relationships among racial identity, college type, and wellness. Journal of Black Studies, 40(2), 527-543.

Storlie, C. A. & Smith, C.K. (2012). The effects of a wellness intervention in supervision: The Clinical Supervisor, 31, 228-239.  doi: 10.1080/07325223.2013.732504

Tanigoshi, H., Kontos, A. P., & Remley Jr, T. P. (2008). The effectiveness of individual wellness counseling on the wellness of law enforcement officers. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86(1), 64.

Tatar, M., & Myers, J. E. (2010). Wellness of children in Israel and the United States: A preliminary examination of culture and well-being. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 17-33. doi: 10.1080/09515071003718384

Van, B. K., Duchemin, S., Gersh, G., Pettigrew, S., Silva, P., & Luskin, B. (2008). Counseling and wellness services integrated with primary care: a delivery system that works. The Permanente Journal, 12(4), 20-4            

Vanderbleek, L., Robinson, E., Casado-Kehoe, M., & Young, M. (2011). The relationship between play and couple satisfaction and stability. The Family Journal, 19(2) 132-139. DOI: 10.1177/1066480711399729

Villalba, J. A., & Myers, J. E. (2008). Effectiveness of wellness-based classroom guidance in elementary school settings: A pilot study. Journal of School Counseling, 6(9).

Watson, J. C., & Kissinger, D. B. (2007). Athletic participation and wellness: Implications for counseling College student-athletes. Journal of College Counseling, 10(2), 153-162.

Watson, J. C., & Lemon, J. C. (2011). A profile of adolescent wellness: Implications for working with a help-seeking population. The Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 50(1), 70-83.

Weiss, J.C. (1995) Universities for the second phase of life. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 23, 3-24, DOI: 10.1300/J083V23N03_02

Wester, K. L., Trepal, H. C., & Myers, J. E. (2009). Wellness of counselor educators: An initial look. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 48(1), 91

Wolf, C. P., Thompson, I., Thompson, E. S., & Smith-Adcock, S. (2014). Refresh your mind, rejuvenate your body, renew your spirit: A pilot wellness program. Journal of Individual Psychology, 70(1), 57-75.

Wolf, C. P., Thompson, I., & Smith-Adcock, S. (2012). Wellness in counselor preparation: Promoting individual wellbeing. Journal of Individual Psychology, 68(2), 164-181.

Yager, G. G., & Tovar-Blank, Z. G. (2007). Wellness and counselor education. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 46(2), 142.

Young, M. E., & Lambie, G. W. (2007). Wellness in school and mental health systems: Organizational influences. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education & Development, 46(1), 98.

Young, T. L., Turnage-Butterbaugh, I., Degges-White, S., & Mossing, S. (2015). Wellness among undergraduate students on academic probation: Implications for college counselors. Journal of College Counseling, 18(3), 222–232.

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